human development 24

Hi I need answers to these two questions. It should be between 150-200 words each. I don’t need cover page. Please use the subject heading of the post to indicate what post is going to be about.

1. Gender roles and parenting in Young adulthood

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In regards to the article by Katz-Wise, Priess, and Hyde (2010):

  • The study was conducted in 2010 with a sample of parents with mean ages ranging from approximately 27 to 30 years old. How do you think the gender role shift would have played out in the past with older generations, such as Baby Boomers? Do you think a shift would occur at all? Do you see any differences as younger Millenials (i.e. those born in the 1990s) become parents?
  • The authors discuss the role of social structure theory, which posits that ‘”the roles people occupy – whether due to individual choice, sociocultural pressures, or biological potentials – lead them to develop psychological qualities and, in turn, behaviors to fit those roles” (Katz-Wise et al., 2010, p. 18). Psychological change after life events, such as transitioning into parenthood, are expected to alter social roles. Can you see any other major life moments across development that might produce similar psychological change? Why or why not?
  • How might future research on parenthood accommodate parents identifying as trans or non-binary?
  • If you were a clinician doing parent education with new parents, how might you encourage an egalitarian framework between parents instead of a traditional one if it was appropriate?

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2. Occupational goals and transitions in Young Adulthood Top of Form

Arnett (2015) outlined Super’s theory of the development of occupational goals. According to this theory, occupational development occurs in stages and begins at age 14. However, this theory has been critiqued for being too linear. For example, people may have multiple careers in their life and women may take time off of work to help raise their family.

In addition, Johnson (2005) assessed the flux of intrinsic and extrinsic work values when individuals get married and become parents. Johnson noted that there is a bidirectional relationship between work values and family formation. Johnson claimed that individuals who value extrinsic work rewards are more likely to get married and have kids than individuals with intrinsic work values. People with low extrinsic and high extrinsic work values may enter marriage later. Additionally, marriage and parenthood may heighten extrinsic work values, particularly for men.

  • Briefly describe other findings about the bidirectional nature of work values and family formation referenced in Johnson’s study. How would an individual’s emphasis on intrinsic and extrinsic work values influence each stage of the development of occupational goals?
  • What changes would you make to these stages of goal development to account for the influence of marriage and parenting?
  • Do you think these stages would be affected by a person’s socioeconomic status? Why or why not
  • Arnett (2015) explained that individuals who grow up in more traditional cultures do not have as much choice in selecting an occupation than individuals in more Western cultures. Individuals in traditional cultures learn early on that they are to choose a job that aligns with their gender. How would the stages of occupational goals change for individuals in these cultures?
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