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  • The term gratuities means one person giving something of worth to another not because they know them but because of their job duties, role or position. “Although the formal code of ethics prohibits accepting gratuities, many officers believe there is nothing wrong with businesses giving freebies to police officers (Pollock, 2017)”. Police feel that the gifts that they are giving is even exchange for the line of work that they do. For example a local mom and pop diner may give a local police officers free meals everyday because they may feel that the officer will make sure their place of business is safe & secure. Reason why people argue against gratuities are that they feel as if police have a job to do and shouldn’t be bribed or rewarded for doing so. Gratuities make people feel like all law enforcement officials are corrupt, which in that case leads to mistrust. Ethical exchanges are only when true rewards or gifts with no exception of future acts are offered and received with no exceptions (Pollock, 2017)”. I believe that it’s best not to gift or bribe anyone police officers and on the other hand police shouldn’t accept if given. This can cause so many issues between the giver and the taker. This makes both sides feel obligated or entitled to certain things and can lead to a even bigger problem. Saint Leo’s core value that would come into play in this situation would be integrity. Integrity is one’s commitment to do what they are suppose to do. This would mean that police officers sign up to protect and serve no matter if they are rewarded for it, it’s their duty.


  • Research conducted has indicated that only a small number of law enforcement officer’s account for many abuse and/or corruption complaints (Barker, 2002; Walker and Alpert, 2002). That being said agencies were hoping to identify these officers through some form of an early warning system which seemed logical. The system identified several complaints, use of force reports, use of firearm reports, reprimands, and additional signs. Suggestions included additional supervision, training, and/or counseling. An example was noted in Miami’s early warning system, police officers identified by the early warning system were subject to “reassignment, retraining, transfer, referral to an employee assistance program asked to complete a fitness for duty evaluation, and/or dismissal (Walker and Alpert, 2002)”. Most of these programs have been approved by the National Institute of Justice. It was reported that by 1999, around 27 percent of law enforcement agencies were utilizing an early warning system (reported in Walker and Alpert, 2002: 220). The programs were only as effective when proper interventions are triggered by the identification of specific issues. This is a reflection not only on the individual officers but senior staff and management. For this discussion, I will find fitting Integrity and Community as is defined in our Saint Leo University core values. Has “Integrity is the commitment to excellence demands that its members live its mission and deliver on its promise. And Community is we foster a spirit of belonging, unity, and interdependence based on mutual trust and respect to create socially responsible environments that challenge all of us to listen, to learn, to change, and to serve”. I believe this applies to law enforcement officials and the professional bearing they should display at all times. They should be setting an example for others to follow respecting our citizens’ rights in the community they serve. Should constantly exhibit high moral, Integrity and Community based on mutual trust and respect to create a socially responsible environment.


  • The mission of the National Center on Shaken Baby Syndrome is committed to shaken baby syndrome and help promote the well-being of infants through the development and implement of programs, policies, and research. They also support and educate families, caregivers and professionals. There have been many misconceptions and falsities made about SBS/AHT that have been addressed by the Society for Pediatric Radiology. It is heard often that there is a rush to judgement determining that the baby suffered from SBS/AHT, that doctors were anxious to find a culprit for the baby’s injuries. However, abuse is the last diagnosis that a doctor would want to make. The SBS/AHT diagnosis are made by a multidisciplinary team of pediatricians and pediatric subspecialty physicians, social workers and other professionals based on considerations of all the facts and evidence, considering all the information acquired via clinical history, physical examination, and laboratory and imaging data. This isn’t a diagnosis made by one individual attending physician. SBS/AHT is diagnosed by a team who carefully considers all alternatives.A common misconception that is often perpetuated in the courtroom and media is when an infant is taken to the hospital with several injuries, that SBS/AHT is the only diagnosis that is considered. SBS/AHT is diagnosed only after careful investigation. The recommendation by the American Academy of Pediatrics to use the term Abusive Head Trauma was intended to be more inclusive of the fact that SBS injuries could be caused by more mechanisms in addition to shaking. The consensus statement is one of the most important documents published confirming the SBS/AHT diagnosis.


  • I chose to do number 1 on internet activities for chapter 10. The internet activity had me go to This site is a wonderful resource for people to learn about sexual abuse and for trauma victims to seek help. The website goes over many myths of sexual assault such as, men are not victims of sexual violence. This myth is not true. In fact, men are almost just as likely to be sexually assaulted. 1.5% of men have been raped and 47% of bisexual men have reported any form of sexual assault or inappropriate touching. Additionally, the trauma of sexual assault affects all people differently. Two people who have gone through similar situations may experience their trauma and emotions in completely different and opposite ways. Some common emotional reactions are guilt, shame, self-blame, fear, distrust, sadness, vulnerability, isolation, lack of control, anger numbness, confusion, shock disbelief, and denial. Furthermore, many victims experience adverse psychological and physical side effects as well. For example: nightmares, flashbacks, PTSD, depression, difficulty concentration, eating disorders, anxiety, low self-esteem, phobias, substance abuse, changes in eating and sleeping patterns, increased startle response, concerns about physical safety, concerns about possible pregnancy, physical injury, and concerns about a possible STD or STI.


  • The three branches of government in regard to criminal law are Legislative Branch, Executive Branch and Judicial Branch. The Legislative branch is responsible for passing the legislation of the nation and allocating federal government resources and offering help to the 50 countries of the United States. The Executive branch key role is to guarantee that regulations are implemented and implemented to promote the federal government’s day-to-day duties such as tax collection, safeguarding the home country, and representing the political and economic interests of the United States around the globe. The Judicial branch’s main role is to hear instances that question or require interpretation of the constitutionality of legislation.2. Private law refers to interactions within a legal system between people. Public law is a theory of legislation that governs the state-individual connection, which is deemed either a corporation or a citizen. Three subdivisions are covered by public legislation: constitutional, administrative and criminal law for example contracts and labor laws. Public law regulates the person, the citizen, the company, and the government, while private law applies to individuals. Public law law covers a wider scope, while private law covers a more specialized scope. Public law is more concerned with problems influencing the general government or the state itself, while private law is more focused on problems influencing people or corporations.


  • The Constitution of the United States partitions the national government into three branches to ensure no individual or group should amass too much power.The three branches consist of

    • Legislative: Congress, including the House of Representatives and the Senate make the laws.
    • Executive: The branch by which the law is carried out (comprised of president, vice president, cabinet and most federal agencies).
    • The Judicial branch: Interprets the law (this is done by The Supreme court and other courts)

    Each branch can make changes to the other’s acts.

    • The President has the power to veto laws enacted by Congress and has the power to appoint the leaders of federal agencies.
    • Congress had the power to accept or reject the president’s nominees and can dismiss the president from office under certain circumstances.
    • Then Justices who are appointed by the president have the power to overturn law which they deem are unconstitutional. They are confirmed by the Senate.

    The power of each branch to challenge the other’s is called the system of checks and balances.Public Law deals with a wide scope of laws that affect the public or state in general everyone. Private Law the generally effects the rights and obligations individuals, businesses, family matters, and citizen disputes. Its scope is much smaller and more specific. Marian is walking down the street and unintentionally walks into Anthony knocking him to the ground. Anthony suffers a broken arm. Cause Marian unintentionally walked into Anthony, if Anthony were to sue Marian the laws applied would be tort laws. Anthony angry that Marian broke his arm finds out where she lives. As she exits he shoots her, killing her. Anthony committed a criminal act. The law that would be applied would be criminal laws. Tort laws are to compensate an individual who has been wronged in some way, criminal laws are to punish an individual who committed a criminal act

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